Horacy – Carmina songs
Songs (songs) come from the second period of Horace's work (the poet lived in years 65 – 8 p. n. e.). They were built slowly, the author edited them with great care. During the Renaissance, Horace's songs were discovered by Petrarch (the great Italian poet of the fourteenth century) and they became the symbol of all ancient lyrics, and the treatise of Horace Ars the Poet was for centuries an oracle in matters of poetry. The Roman writer had countless followers, Jan Kochanowski was among them. When creating his songs, Horace referred to Greek patterns, mainly to Sappho's solo song, Anakreonta, but it is not clear, whether his songs were composed with singing in mind. The most important features of Horacjańska's songs are their shortness (songs usually took 6-10 punishment) and diversity based on a wealth of content, themes, a varied specification, stanzas, etc.. In the middle of the 16th century, Horace's songs began to inspire poetry in national languages more and more.
Song is the oldest genre of lyrical poetry. Once upon a time, songs were permanently connected with music, they were sung during rituals, world. Horace made them an independent literary form, it was his achievements that Jan Kochanowski referred to. There are different types of songs, e.g.. love, convivial, commendable, dancing, religious, soldiers, mournful, wedding. They have fixed construction rules: the same number of syllables in the lines, division into stanzas. They are regular pieces, rhythmic.
The songs are distinguished by a significant thematic diversity. We find religious works among them, patriotic, philosophical, convivial, erotic, depicting the poet's literary program, his views on death, expressing the joy of life. Much of these works have been dedicated to friends, especially the Patron, Augustowi (as the restorer of the old Roman virtues, the winners). There are also occasional songs, bringing wishes, Congratulations, condolences, invitations etc.. In the so-called. Roman odes Horace became the inspired teacher of the Romans, a fortune teller, a poet who educates society and is concerned about its condition. He called for the cultivation of ancient Roman virtues, bravery, courage in battle, contempt of death, dignity, fidelity and obedience, physical prowess. He also argued, that wealth does not guarantee happiness, it does not bring internal balance, it does not free you from the fear of death.
Horace also wrote quite a few songs for state ceremonies, In a way, he played the role of the "official" poet of Rome at that time. After all, he was closely associated with the imperial court, with August, always concerned about the fate of his country as a citizen.
A lyrical subject, directly indicated, the poet himself is in the poem under analysis, and the subject of the piece is creativity, the calling of a writer. The poem is an expression of pride in the work done, which will surely prove to be more durable than any other monuments of fame (visions of future poetic fame also appear in other texts by Horace). About the greatness of poetry, its meaning and mission, which poets are to fulfill, Horace was mentioned many times in many songs. Muses endow poets with talent, just as they send a gift of power to them, who rule the nations. Jan Kochanowski directly refers to this song, the creator of excellent translations and free modifications of Horace's works, in the poem Exegi monumentum.
Horace in the assessment of his achievements (the poet compared himself to a builder, who has just completed a great work) leaves no room for understatement: I have built myself a monument that is more durable than bronze, I have undoubtedly created a perfect work. This monument is the work of the poet, immortal literary output, which cannot be destroyed (like material monuments), oblivion. Not everything dies – I will not all die. Horace repeated this last sentence with great relish, enjoying the everlasting fame, which is always the greatest reward for any artist. There is only one thing left for the poet: waiting for the Muse to make a symbolic gesture, putting a laurel wreath on the temples, which Apollo himself will confirm the greatness of the writer.
This poem, composed of four four-line stanzas, is an expression of pride in his work, beliefs about her immortality, awareness, that the written works have few equal. The piece is a kind of auto-thematic poetry, that is, poetry about poetry, and the lyrical "I" is identical with the person of the poet. The poet speaks directly to the addressee on his own behalf, which, however, is not precisely defined.
Horace himself called the poems of interest to us songs, while later grammarians regarded them as odes. Horace's songs are characterized by an elaborate form, they have a strophic structure and are very varied (some of it was introduced by this poet into Roman poetry) row measures. The writer willingly used the patterns of ancient Greek poems, e.g.. Safony, Pindara (he often provided poems with mottos from their works), but the images taken over from them, he gave them a Roman color, character. Horace has always respected the harmony between the content, and the rhythmic form of the song. He often used the poetic technique of starting from the situational details and reaching within the work to general philosophical reflection with clear practical accents, a reflection that has unambiguous references to reality.
Horace was not only an eminently gifted poet, but also a writer with a constant focus on literary theory, studying old patterns. Throughout his entire creative life, he strove to achieve formal perfection, perfected his rich, varied poetic language, covering different types of speech: from colloquial to lofty language, the prayer style of some works. It was Horace who gave the full artistic shape to many poetic genres.