MUSIC AND HISTORY
Can music be related to history?? To appreciate its importance in history, it is enough to quote a beautiful legend about the Krakow trumpeter, who died from a Tatar arrow, when the bugle call alerted the city about an enemy attack; suffice it to mention battle chants, in which the soldiers went tactfully to fight for freedom and for a better tomorrow, or guerrilla songs, sometimes sad, sometimes swashbuckling, supporting the spirit during the occupation. That hetmans used to be musicians, that musicians used to be statesmen, that political events resonated in the works of the great masters of tone, you will find out by answering the following questions.
1. Who wrote the words of the national anthem “Poland has not yet perished”?
2. Under the influence of what events Chopin wrote the 'Revolutionary Etude”?
3. Who was originally dedicated to "Eroica”?
4. What musical instruments have been known in our country since the earliest times?
5. Which famous pianist was the prime minister?
6. Why is the French national anthem called "The Marseillaise"?
7. What was Nero doing, when Rome was burning?
8. For whom the composer was inspired by ancient German legends?
9. When the "International” was considered a workers' anthem?
10. What a queen was a music lover?
1. The song “Poland is not yet lost”, the so-called. "Mazurka Dąbrowskiego”, was established in Italy, in Regio, in July 1797 R. The music was taken from a folk song, the words were written by the poet Józef Wybicki. It is a moot point, was there a melody first?, whose author is virtually unknown, or words. Perhaps, that the words were not written until two years later.
2. Chopin left the country in November 1830 R., even before the uprising broke out. He gave concerts in Vienna and Munich, then he went to Paris. In September 1831 R. he stopped in Stuttgart, where he heard about the fall of the uprising and the capture of Warsaw. He expressed his despair, composing the Etude in C minor, called "Revolutionary”.
3. “Heroic”, Beethoven's Symphony No. 3 in E flat major, it was dedicated to Bonaparte, because the artist saw in it a symbol of republican freedom and the leader of the people. Upon learning of Napoleon's coronation as emperor, Beethoven destroyed the dedication and dedicated the symphony "to the memory of a great man”.
4. One of the oldest known Polish musical instruments is the ligawka - a long wooden trumpet, and goose. O, the first is mentioned by the Arab traveler in Poland, Al Becri, writing about a wind instrument used by the Slavs, the length of which passes 2 elbows. Early medieval geese were dug out in Gdańsk.
5. Ignacy Paderewski, excellent pianist, he worked for Poland during the First World War, he was its representative at the Congress of Versailles. In 1919 R. by 10 for months he was the prime minister in the Polish coalition government. Only in 1922 R. began touring again. Zamieszkał na stałe w Szwajcarii. He died in January 1941 R. in United States.
6. "Marseillaise”, revolutionary song, which became the French national anthem, was composed in 1792 R. for the Rhenish army by the officer Rouget de Lisle. She was brought to Paris by a group of young soldiers from Marseilles, who set off, to dethrone the king. The "Song of War of the Army of the Rhine" gained immense popularity among the revolutionaries and was renamed "The Marseillaise".
7. Nero began his reign with the murder of his mother and wife. But did he himself set fire to Rome in 64 R., as later historians attribute it to him, it is not certain. However, versions are likely, that he stood on the balcony of his palace during the fire and to the sounds of the lyre he sang the lament of Priam over the burning Ilium.
8. Song of the Nibelungen, German epic from the second half of the 12th century, singing the deeds of the hero Siegfried and the Burgundian Krymhilda, was used by Ryszard Wagner for the theme of the opera series' The Ring of the Nibelung”. which was established in the years 1851-1874. Other ancient German legends were also a source of inspiration for this great composer, the creators of the new form: musical drama.
9. The words "International” wrote in 1871 R. Eugeniusz Pottier, participant in the fights of the Paris Commune. and the melody was composed by Adolf Degeyter. At the international workers 'congress convened in Paris on the hundredth anniversary of the capture of the Bastille, it was recognized as a workers' anthem (1889 R.). During this congress it was decided to recognize the day 1 May is a workers' holiday.
10. Michał Kazimierz Ogiński, Grand Hetman of Lithuania, he belonged to the group of enlightened magnates of the Stanisław epoch. He was a great lover of music. He kept a good orchestra in Słonim, perfected the mechanism of the harp, which was used by the French Erard to build a pedal harp. He also wrote several polonaises.