Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture)

Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture), institution established. 1648 in Paris by a group of artists (z Ch. Le Brunem at the helm), wishing to break free from the guild's hegemony. Originally it was a free association with an unlimited number of members. In 1651 The academy merged with the Académie de Saint-Luc, 1655 received a royal subsidy, a 1664 was reorganized by J.. B. Colberta i Le Bruna, becoming an official state institution with specific tasks and broad powers. Members of the Academy obtained the title of court artists, they had priority in the distribution of positions and orders and the privilege of exhibiting their works (-^ salons), and at the same time submitted to the king's cultural policy. The seat of the Academy was the Louvre, and the first manager was Le Brun. Based on the formulas incl. (Accademia di San Luca in Rome), pedagogical activity was commenced, subject to strict regulations. Drawing was the basis of teaching, the Academy had a monopoly on the study of a live model. Outstanding students could apply for the Prix de Rome (from 1664), enabling further studies in Italy (from 1666 w Académie de France à Rome). Implemented 1664 discussion meetings of academics (Conferences) their purpose was to establish binding aesthetic canons. The theory of classicism was commented on and developed at the Academy, the basis of which was formulated by N. Poussin; understood in a dogmatic way, this theory led to schematism, monotony and pompous stiffness of art. Rules were created regarding the rules of drawing (1670), proportions of the human figure (1672—78), expression 1675), layout, chiaroscuro (1679) and color (1679); a strict hierarchy of topics has been developed. A negative attitude towards color issues led to the end of the 17th century. to the famous dispute between supporters of academic classicism (chickensci) and exuberant baroque art (rubensiści) ; views played an important role in this dispute, preached by R.. of Batteries. W XVIII w. The Academy maintained its position, although its importance has decreased significantly. In 1793 has been dissolved, and in its place was established the Commune des Arts, później Popular and Republican Society of the Arts, W XIX w. the functions of the Academy were split between the Académie des Beaux-Arts and the École des Beaux-Arts.