The answer to this question requires a moment of reflection. The political map of the world changed frequently. Entire areas, especially borderline, they changed hands many times, that to mention, for example, Alsace and Lorraine, which are typical in this respect. They changed their owners of the island, as well as large tracts of continents, like for example. Canada, which was initially a French colony and only in the second half of the 18th century. passed under English rule. Can you answer, to whom the islands listed here belonged in certain years, cities or countries?

1. Ceylon in 1525 R.

2. Cuba in 1550 R.

3. Crete in 1600 R.

4. Szczecin in 1650 R.

5. Gibraltar w 1700 R.

6. Silesia in 1725 R.

7. Toruń in 1775 R.

8. Bulgaria in 1800 R.

9. Krakow in 1825 R.

10. Alaska in 1850 R.


1. Ceylon in 1525 R. belonged to Portugal. Wishing to settle permanently in India, The Portuguese began to systematically conquer and fortify points important for trade and shipping. The first was Goa, which was made the capital of the colonies spanning the west coast of India, and later also Ceylon. In the 17th century. the island passed into the hands of the Dutch, a w 1802 R. got into the English.

2. Cuba in 1550 R. belonged to Spain. Cuba, the largest of the Antilles Islands, discovered by Columbus in 1492 R. Spaniards in the 16th century. They established their main port for trade with the colonies - Havana. Cuba was almost constantly in their hands until 1898 R., when Spain relinquished its rights to the United States. W 1902 R. an independent Cuban republic was established.

3. Crete in 1600 R. it belonged to Venice. This Mediterranean island is already approx. 4000 years ago it was the center of a developed culture. W 67 R. p.n.e. the Romans took it. Later, she often changed her political affiliation. It was in the hands of the Byzantines and Arabs. W XIII c. It was conquered by the Venetians and lost to the Turks only in the mid-17th century. Currently, Crete is part of Greece.

4. Szczecin in 1650 R. belonged to Sweden. As the capital of Western Pomerania, it had separate princes already in the times of Krzywousty. He was a member of the Hanseatic League. W 1648 R., after the end of the Thirty Years' War, was handed over to Sweden under the Peace of Westphalia. W 1713 R. passed into the hands of Brandenburg and Prussia.

5. Gibraltar w 1700 R. belonged to Spain. Only during the Spanish Succession War, run by England, Austria, The Netherlands and some of the princes of the Reich against Louis XIV and Philip V of Spain, w 1704 R. England captured Gibraltar from Spain, as confirmed by the peace in Utrecht. From then on, it ruled over the Strait of Gibraltar and access to the Mediterranean Sea.

6. Silesia in 1725 R. belonged to Austria. W XIV c. Silesia left Poland for the benefit of the Czech Republic and with them came under Habsburg rule in the 17th century. The victories won by Frederick the Great led to the conquest of Silesia by Prussia (1742). It was then that the rapid Germanization of the country began and the German language began to displace Polish from public life.

7.Toruń in 1775 R. belonged to Poland. Rich trading city, at the junction of the roads of the then Polish state to the mouth of the Vistula, it was for a long time the target of Prussia's lust. However, they did not get in the first partition. Only destroyed by the customs policy of Prussia, was seized by them in 1793 R. After temporarily belonging to the Duchy of Warsaw, Toruń remained in Prussian hands through 100 Years.

8. Bulgaria in 1800 R. belonged to Turkey. In Roman times, today's Bulgaria formed the provinces of Moesia and Thrace, which in the 5th-7th centuries. were occupied by the Slavic population, and then conquered by the Mongolian Bulgarians. An independent Bulgarian state in the 14th century. succumbed to the Turks. Only in the 19th century. Bulgaria regained its independence.

9. Krakow in 1825 R. was a free city. At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 R. Austria, Russia and Prussia could not be reconciled, who will occupy Krakow. Finally, they decided to make Krakow a free city, which included 244 villages and 3 township. The Republic of Krakow, which was the center of independence activity after a year 1831, was liquidated after the fall of the revolution 1846.

10. Alaska in 1850 R. belonged to Russia. Spanish explorers may have made it to Alaska earlier, but its actual discovery was made only by the Bering expedition in 1741 R. Alexei Cherikov also participated in it. The Russians soon established trading bases there. Cook did further exploratory research, Vancouver i Mackenzie. W 1867 R. The United States bought Alaska from Russia for 7 200 000 dollars.