LAST, FINAL, LAST … ?
Life forms change, they change the systems of states, ages are ending, start new ones. We're not asking here, who was the last Piast on the Polish throne - that would be too easy. It is harder to say something about the last Duke of Masovia, whose body rests in the Warsaw cathedral. And the smoking of witches? To this day, our blood chills our veins, when we read about the burning of innocent women suspected of witchcraft at the stake. Answering the following questions will clarify a few points of the scope “the last”.
1. Prussian homage
2. A Muslim state in the Pyrenees Peninsula
3. Burning of witches in Poland
4. Wife of Henry VIII
5. The Seym of the former Republic of Poland
6. Emperor of Austria
7. Commander-in-chief of the November Uprising
8. King of France
9. Duke of Masovia
10. Balkan state, which gained independence
1. Friedrich Wilhelm Hohenzollern, having taken power; in Ducal Prussia, proposed to Władysław IV, that he will pay tribute by deputies. At the request of the Polish Diet (6 October 1641). W 16 years later, Poland lost its Prussian fief.
2. Moorish rule lasted the longest in southern Spain, in the kingdom of Granada. The followers of Islam, forced out of the Pyrenean Peninsula, converged here. The densely populated country has come to a thriving state. Gardening and horticulture were of high priority, crafts and trade. After a long siege, Granada fell in 1492 R.
3. W 1775 R. in the village of Doruchów, in the Wieluń region, they were burned at the stake 14 women suspected of bringing disease and being dried by witchcraft. At the Sejm of 1776 R. the king demanded the abolition of torture, and the castellan of Biecki, Wojciech Kluszewski, the death penalty for witchcraft. The Sejm adopted both motions unanimously. A special medal was minted in memory of this act.
4. Henryk VIII (1509—1547) he became famous not only as a defender of England's national interests and a reformer of the English church, but also for his private life. Not everyone can boast of having 6 wifes, two of them died on the scaffold on the spouse's orders. Katarzyna Parr survived him. After Henry died, she came out from Admiral Seymour.
5. The Grodno Sejm, convened in 1793 R. after the second partition, for a long time he had been passive resistance to the demands of the Russian and Prussian deputies, ale otoczony wojskiem uległ przemocy i w milczeniu przyzwolił na ratyfikację rozbioru, especially since some of the deputies had been arrested before. It was the last Seym of noble Poland.
6. Hardly anyone remembers, that the last emperor of Austria was not the long-lived Franz Joseph, but Charles I., who took the throne of 1916 R. Attempts to negotiate with the coalition compromised him in the eyes of Germany. W 1918 R. after the collapse of the Central Powers he abdicated, a w 1921 R. he tried unsuccessfully to seize the Hungarian throne. He died in Madeira in 1922 R.
7. After Krukowiecki's resignation, the penitentiary became the commander-in-chief of the November Uprising. Maciej Rybinski. He belonged to the counter-revolutionary faction of generals, who thought only of surrender. Seeing the Seym, that he is going to give up completely, took his command and made Umiński leader. This decision was not accepted by the generals. 5 October 1831 R. Polish troops crossed the border of Prussia.
8. Louis Philip, the Duke of Orleans, was 1789 R. supporter of the revolution in France, but later he switched to the Austrians. He assumed the French throne after the July Revolution in 1830 R. He tried to win the favor of the wealthy bourgeoisie, but gradually he succumbed to the influence of reaction, which triggered the February Revolution 1848 R. and removing him from the throne.
9. Mazovia was that part of ethnic Poland, which joined the state at the latest, it has retained its separateness for the longest time after the period of division into districts. The last Duke of Masovia was Janusz III. He died in a year 1526 (there was even a suspicion of poisoning). After his death, Mazovia was incorporated into Poland.
10. Albania from 1479 R. was under Turkish rule. Despite many uprisings, it failed to gain independence the longest of all the Balkan states. Only at the Congress of Powers in London (1912) it was recognized as an independent state. In World War II, previously occupied by Italy, served as their base for Greece. W 1946 R. proclaimed a people's republic in Albania.